Period                :  Year 2023 & 2024

4 To Go               :   16 Sep – 28 Oct – 18 Nov – 02 Dec – 13 Jan – 10 Feb – 02 March – 20 Apr – 18 May – 01 June

Pax                     :  4 To Go ( Sitting in Coach )

Hotel                   Bintang / Star 4****  ( 4**** During low season & 3*** During High Season – 5***** Hotels Upon request )

Route                 :  Malaga in & out from Malaga

Special Request : Muslim Historical Heritage & Spiritual Holiday




Itinerary as following :

Day 1. Malaga Airport – Marbella – Gibraltar ” Panoramic of Jabal Tariq ”  – Tarifa – Medina Sidonia – Benacazon

Day 2. Benacazon – Sevilla – Benacazon

Day 3. Benacazon – Tavira  ” Portugal ”  – Benacazon

Day 4. Benacazon – Ronda  – Benacazon

Day 5. Benacazon – Córdoba  – Granada ( Loja )

Day 6. Granada ( Loja )

Day 7. Granada – Malaga Airport



–    Hotel : 4**** very good Hotels based on Bed & breakfast

–    Meals : Half Board board Halal ( Halal Dinner ) Lunch will be indicated to Clients for Halal Food

–    Transportation Private Car / Coach   : Program from Day 1 from the Airport until the tour finishes on Day 7 at the Airport

–    Taxes : All City Transportation Tourism Taxes & Person Tourist taxes

–    Private Official GPG Guide : Program from Day 1 until the tour finishes Muslim Guide will be at the clients disposal during the full tour  24/7 and overnight at the same hotel as clients.

–    Prayer : Facilities & Mosque and Muslim community visits and encounters during the full stay

–    Entrances Fees :  Included all sight visits mentioned in program

–    Not included :  Lunches / Tips / Private  Insurances and any other personal expenses

All Tours start at the indicated date at 1pm afternoon – Clients who arrive a day earlier due to flight issues ( meaning 1 day before the tour day starts ) after informing us we will charge  a 1 time additional supplement which includes the Hotel overnight & breakfast and Transfer from Airport to the Hotel .




Important :“ We always accommodate our clients in 4**** Hotels , however depending on the season when the prices are high we keep the right to accommodate them in 3*** or to mix to avoid any sub charge to the clients due to the high season “


Full Itinerary








The Spanish land is one of the most exotic and remote countries in Western Europe located on the Iberian Peninsula.

This travel destination attracts millions of tourists each year.

Due to the Greater Andalusia and its Islamic History and remnants of Islam once dominated life in Spain and South Europe for centuries, Costa del Sol all the way up to Portugal, the Islamic Imperial Cities of the Muslims such as; Cordoba, Sevilla, Granada, Toledo, Madrid, Malaga, Medina Sidonia, Cadiz, Ronda , Tarifa, Tavira and much more.

This country gives travelers a one-of-a-kind experience as they discover a wide array of cultural regions each with a distinguished character, which differ tremendously, yet share an affinity for hospitality and friendliness.

Our extraordinary Spiritual Heritage Journeys in Spain will bring you so close to the Spanish people and their Islamic Heritage and culture.

When one thinks of the beauty of the coastlines and the characteristic fishing villages, white Andalusian villages, this country should immediately spring to mind, offering some of the most impressive sea ports and picturesque towns in the world.

Today Spain has recognized its history and made it suitable for Muslim travelers to come and enjoy tours tailored on their behalf to revive a great era of Islam in Spain to learn about their past history of glory, their contribution in humanities and sciences.

But most important bringing blessings and grace and thanks to the Millions of Shuhadaa and Al Awliyaa who once enlightened these lands and the world with the Nour of Islam..from which humanity has lifted herself from the dark Ages to the Enlightenment of Islamic Civilization.

WORLD ISLAMIC HERITAGE  has established as a global pioneer in World Islamic & Halal Spiritual Heritage Development – Travel and Education, its special effort to cater to Muslims and Non Muslim visitors by creating special Halal designed infrastructure throughout Europe & South America Alhamdulillah.

WORLD ISLAMIC HERITAGE  understands the needs and exigencies of practicing Muslims and their Spiritual needs when traveling abroad.





Meals : Exclusive Halal Half-board arrangements.

Sightseeing :After arrival at Malaga International Airport we will start our journey throughout the beautiful scenery of the Costa del Sol along the Mediterranean sea towards Gibraltar ” Jabal Tariq “…on our way we will bring a short visit for our Lunch at the beautiful city of ” Marbella ” a coastal Luxury Paradise at the Mediterranean Sea  on the front line of the coast. Puerto Banus is the most Luxurious Yacht Harbour of Spain for the world rich & Famous , we will visit the grand Mosque of Marbella for our prayers before we continue our journey..

After our prayers we will continue our journey while narrowing the Historical story where it all began…how Islam entered Europe… the story of Gibraltar  “ Jabal Tariq “ named after the Great Muslim conqueror “ Sayiduna Tariq Ibnu Ziyad ” , we will enjoy a beautiful Panoramic stop at the feet of the Island mountain while viewing the street of Gibraltar with the Beautiful berber mountains of North Africa ‘ Morocco ” and at the otherside the immense beautiful mountain Island of Gibraltar.. this is also be narrowed by a lot of scholars to be the encountering of the 2 seas as mentioned in the Holy Quran.

…we will be narrowing and following the Trial of this great Muslim leader step by step…- Afterwards we will head towards the coastal city of ” Tarifa ” the beautiful most southern city of Spain named after the great commandant ” Sayyiduna Abdul Malik Ibn Tarif “… send by ” Sayiduna Tariq Ibnu Ziyad ” as first conquest investigator to the Iberian peninsula in 710 before the great entry conquest by ” Sayiduna Tariq Ibnu Ziyad “, this great commandant ” Sayyiduna Abdul Malik Ibn Tarif “.is been high respected and remembered by the Spanish population until the day of today.. A great monument of him stands at the main gate of the Old Historical Medina wall..

After having spent some time we will continue our journey to ” Barbate ” the exact Historical place according to the narrowing were the great battle found place on the 27th of Ramadan in 711 between ” Sayiduna Tariq Ibnu Ziyad ” with an army counted of 7000 soldiers and King Rodrico as narrowed with an army exceeding the 100 000 soldiers.. We will narrow this Historical event on location where the Battle found place ( Allah knows best ) ” Ard Al Shuhada ” blessing this visit and this place by performing our prayers and – Salat Janaza Al Ghaib – ( Prayers for the unknown deaths ) for our ancestors..

Afterwards we will continue our journey to ” Medina Sidonia ” – The white Village the home city of ” Guzman El Bueno “…. ” Sayyiduna Uthman the Justice One ” a famous Muslim leader of the 13th century which his islamic descendant was kept secret in the historical books by the Catholic church until a few years ago one of his grandchildren herrors ” The Duchess of Medina Sidonia ” during a renovation at the Old historical family castle of Guzman El Bueno encountered behind the Palace historical walls thousands of manuscripts hidden for centuries from the incosition time by the Catholic church narrowing in detail the heritage of ” Guzman El Bueno ” and ” Medina Sidonia ” during his reigning era ..Finally we will bring a visit to our final destination for today ” Benacazon ”  – Dinner & Overnight in Benacazon.



Meals : Exclusive Halal Half-board arrangements.

Sightseeing :This Morning we will bring a visit to the beautiful Caliphate City of ” Sevilla ” ..  The city of Seville’s rich Islamic heritage has made it one of the greatest cities in the western world during medieval times. By 694, corresponding to 92AH, Islām had spread across North Africa, Persia and Shām. Al-Andalus (Spain) was under the tyrannical rule of King Roderic of the Visigoths who persecuted, oppressed and imprisoned Jews and Christians alike. According to the chronicles of history, a Christian chief Julian, who had fled Spain, called upon the Muslims across the shores for help. The Umayyad governor of North Africa,  ” Sayiduna Mūsā Ibnu. Nusair ” , responded by sending his courageous General at the head of 7,000 troops who landed at a point close to the huge rock which dominates the entrance to the Mediterranean. In Ramadān of that year, they were confronted with an army led by Roderic himself amounting to 100,000. There was an aura of fear and scepticism amongst the Muslim flanks; upon knowing which, the General ordered his loyal men to burn all the ships that had carried them there and were their only source of a safe journey back home. That man, that fearless leader, was called Tāriq b. Ziyād. Once all of the ships were burnt, Tāriq addressed his soldiers and was reported to have said: “We shall now either defeat the enemy and gain victory or die a coward’s death by drowning in the sea “.

The army burst with great enthusiasm to meet the enemy and Allāh manifested a clear victory over the forces of tyranny and oppression, paving the way for the liberation and conquest of Spain. A year later, Mūsā b. Nusair himself landed in Spain with an army of 18,000 veteran mujāhids. They quickly took Medina Sidonia, Carmona and, after a long siege, took Hispalis. Hispalis was the name given to this city by the Romans and changed to Spalis later by the Visigoths. Now that it came under the territories of Islām, the city’s name was arabised to ‘Ishbillyah’, from which is derived what we have come to know it as today: Seville, pronounced “Savellya” in Spanish, which is almost the Arabic pronunciation. Al-Maqqari said of Ishbiliyah that it was “the most important city in Andalusia“.

One of Islāmic Ishbillyah’s famous 12th century scholars was the Muslim botanist,  ” Abū Zakariyah al-Awwam Ishibili “, who had identified nearly 600 plants and had developed methods of grafting; in the usual Islāmic fashion, he is named “Ishibili” after the city he came from. But there is more of the Islāmic past in Seville, submerged in the famous relics of the Alcazar and the Cathedral, La Giralda. Ishbillyah was the capital of al-Andalus for three years, between 713-116 – the first Islāmic capital in Spain. The Umayyad dynasty was then established in al-Andalus with the arrival of Prince ‘Abd al-Rahmān I, in 755. His family, which had ruled the Muslim world from Damascus since 661, had been overthrown by a revolutionary movement which began in far off Khurasan and took power in 750 and with this began  the line of the Abbasid Caliphs, with their new capital in Baghdad. Abd al-Rahman survived the massacre of his family and fled to the west and succeeded in establishing a dynasty that would rule Spain until 1031, moving their capital from Ishbiliyah ( Seville ), to Qurtuba (Córdoba).

It was in these years that followed that Ishbillyah began to be transformed from Roman to Islāmic. The first congregational Mosque was built in Ishbiliyah in 829 and marked the beginning of the transformation. This was the mosque of  ” Umar Ibnu Adabbas ” , whose foundation inscription reads:

“ May God have mercy on ʿAbd al-Raḥmān Ibnu Al Hakam, the just prince, the rightly guided by God, who ordered the construction of this mosque under the direction of ” Umar Ibnu Adabbas “, Qadi of Ishbiliyah, in the year 829 “.

This is the oldest surviving inscription from al-Andalus. This inscription can be found today above the cloister entrance of the church of San Salvador, which occupies the site of the earliest Sevillian Mosque.

Only 15 years after the building of the mosque, the city was to become the venue for one of the great encounters when the Muslims faced the invading Vikings in 844. The Muslims were led by ʿAbd ar-Raḥmān Ibnu. Al-Hakam II. The Umayyad rule was officially abolished in 1031 and was then ruled by independent kingships. Andalusia at this time, which was among the richest and most powerful states in Europe, underwent civil war and fitna, tribulation. As a result, it broke into small rival emirates ” Taifa’s ” fighting amongst themselves and this set in motion the rule of the Taifa Kings – the petty kings. This was a period in which central authority no longer existed amongst the Muslims and cities and territories were fragmented and ruled by different rulers. The Taifa Kings competed with one another. The self-absorption of these petty kings ultimately led to their demise, during which time the Christian rulers became increasingly unified and began to consider expanding into the Southern Peninsula. In many cases, some of these Muslim kings would side with Christian groups against another Muslim state or city.

One such King,  ” Al-Mu’tadid ” , took the throne in Ishbiliyah in 1042 and began an aggressive expansion leading to his ruling Western al-Andalus which reached to the Atlantic coast of Bortugāl – Portugal ” Ard Al Burtuqal ” (  Land of the Oranges ). In this period, al-Mu’tadid’s son, Al-Mu’tamid was required to pay a tribute to the Christian ruler from the North, Alfonso VI. Not wanting to continue doing this, he called on the assistance of a great Muslim personality from across the shores in North Africa, Yūsuf b. Tafshin who had begun a reform movement in Africa known as the al-Murabitun, Almoravids. His powerful army were referred to as the ‘Mulathtamun’, ‘the veiled ones’ from their habit of covering their mouth and nose with their head cloth – as do their modern descendants, the Tuareg.

The Murabitun crossed into Spain in 1086 and immediately inflicted a terrible defeat on Alfonso VI at ” Al-Zallaqah ” ( near the city of  nowadays Badajoz ) . Ishbillyah was no longer a tribute state of the Christians and was now under the protection of Yūsuf b. Tafshin who thereafter returned to Morocco only to be called back again a few years later. Realising the state of these Taifa Kings and knowing that it was beyond them to unite and set their differences aside, Yūsuf b. Tafshin returned once more in 1091 and, one by one, began taking control of all the Muslim states in al-Andalus. It should also be noted that during this very same period, the First Crusade was well underway carving out their territories in Jerusalem which, by extension, also included a push by the Christians of the Northern Iberian Peninsula to wage their crusade and take over the Muslim territories.

Ishbiliyah, meanwhile, continued to be the capital of Western al-Andalus under the Almoravids, who governed it for 56 years, from 1091 to 1147. By 1094, only three years after tak­ing the city, the Almoravids ruled all of al-Andalus; it was not long before they had extended their sway to most of Southern Portugal. In the 12th century, a threat to the Murabitun power came from another religious-political movement in Morocco: the al-Muwahhidun, the Almohads. Beginning in 1121, the al-Muwahhidun began dismembering the al-Murabitun state in the Maghrib. In 1146 they crossed into Spain. They took Ishbiliyah the following year and made it their capital. It remained so almost until its final conquest by the Christians.

The construction of the Great Mosque and its minaret, now the cathedral and the Giralda, was the major work undertaken by Abū Yaʿqūb Yūsuf, who began laying it out in the spring of 1172. He had already carried out the restoration of the old mosque of ʿUmar b. ʿAdabbas and many smaller ones, but wanted a mosque large enough for all the faithful, and an unforgettable symbol of al-Muwahhid power. A team of craftsmen from every town in al-Andalus and from as far away as Marrakech was assem­bled, under the authority of the architect and engineer Aḥmad b. Basu. The most precious materials were used – marble, sandal-wood, gold and silver.

The last major al-Muwahhid work in Ishbiliyah is the Burj al-Dhahab, ‘the Torre del Oro’, or Golden Tower – now almost as much a symbol of Seville as the Giralda. Begun in 1220, toward the end of al-Muwahhid rule, it was built to protect the bridge of boats. A heavy chain was stretched across the river from the base of the tower to prevent enemy ships coming upriver, but this security measure lasted only a generation.

Fernando III of Castile, who prized the city, conquered it on 23 November 1248. Legend says when he entered the city on 22 December 646 1248, he rode his steed up the ramps inside La Giralda, the 320-ft. tall minaret of Seville’s large congregational mosque, to proclaim his victory. This was the very spot from which the adhān would be called and the shayaṭīn would run; now the shayaṭīn were calling and the Muslims were on the run. With this came the end of Muslim rule in Ishbiliyah, or, as we now know it, Seville.

One of the main lessons we can learn today from Seville’s and Spain’s glorious past is the period before its ultimate decline, the period of the Taifa Kings. Today, we have Muslims and students of knowledge who are self-absorbed and engulfed in petty disputes of differences, all the while the menacing neo-cons and enemies of all Muslims continue to encroach further on our beliefs. As the saying goes, “He who forgets the past is doomed to repeat it”. May Allāh unite our hearts and minds and save us from a similar destructive fate as the Muslims of Spain.

After breakfast, we will depart to the city centre of Sevilla. City tour visit to The Great Mosque Minaret ” La Giralda ” , once the main grand Mosque of Seville ( Converted to a Cathedral during the inquisition ) – The Emir Palace ” Alcázar ” the famous immense beautiful palace of the famous Emir and Poet ” Emir Ibn Abbad “- The Old Islamic Palace wall – The golden Tower “Torre del Oro” – Plaza de España – Free time for leisure in the old town shopping district – Free Afternoon for Shopping & Leisure Overnight and Diner in Benacazon.



Meals :Exclusive Halal Half-board arrangements.

Sightseeing : After breakfast panoramic Tour through the beautiful South western landscapes of Spain & South Portugal … today we will bring a visit to Portugal ” Ard Al Burtuqal ” the land of the Oranges… , to the islamic Kingdom of ” Tavira “.. A beautiful discovery tour of the Islamic Kingdom of Tavira, once a great Islamic authority in the southern part of Portugal during the Islamic reign… also known as ” Gharb Al Andalus ” the West of Al Andalus  ..

The Muslims called their territory in Iberia al-Andalus (“land of the Vandals”). Muslim Portugal was known as “Gharb al-Andalus” – western al-Andalus. The colder and wetter lands of the Trás-os-Montes region and Beira Alta were never of much attraction to the newcomers, who preferred the drier and warmer region of the Algarve, which had more in common with the climate, landscape and geography of their homeland. Islamic Portugal remained a rather peripheral region administered from the main power center of Cordoba in southern Spain. During the Muslim period of control various splits occurred between local Iberian-based rulers and those in North Africa and further afield. In 756 Abd al-Rahman I proclaimed himself ruler of an independent Iberian state free from the control of the Abbasid caliphate in Baghdad.

In 929 his successor Abd al-Rahman III adopted the title of caliph. It was a sign of the rising importance of the region in the Islamic world of the time. Under his rule Cordoba became a magnificent city of mosques and palaces. By the 10th century this political unity and stability had been shattered following the death of al-Mansur, a powerful chief minister. Thereafter al-Andalus became divided into a number of competing taifas or petty kingdoms. Pressure from a resurgent Christian north was also beginning. The taifas of the Islamic south began a system of paying off the Christians in the form of parias or protection money. Relief came in 1086 with the intervention of fundamentalist Almoravids from North Africa who defeated the Christians. However, this intervention was short-lived when the Almoravids in turn lost their power base in Morocco to the Almohads. By 1172, the Almohads had incorporated Al-Andalus into their territory.

It was to be the fate of this dynasty to suffer the attacks from the Christian north during the period known to the victors as the Reconquista.  Islamic Portugal was divided into administrative units known as kuwar administered by a wali (governor). The wali were responsible for revenue collection, law and order and Military defence. Justice was dispensed by qadis (Islamic judges), though there was a different legal system for Christians and Jews. The most important kuwar in Islamic Portugal were Alcácer do Sal, Beja, Coimbra, Idanha, Lisbon, Santarém and Silves. Kuwar were sub-divided into medina which in turn were divided into aldeias and alcarias. Fortified cities had an inner precinct alcáçova (from the Arabic al-qaṣabah) and a citadel, alcácer.  Muslim settlers in Portugal included mainly North African Berbers and Yemeni Arabs. The latter along with hereditary title holders formed a ruling elite known as the hassa with the remainder of the people called the amma. The hassa were mainly city dwellers with the amma tied to the land.

By the 11th century the amma consisted of mainly Christian converts to Islam – the muwallads. Christians who retained their religion were known as Mozarabs and were in the minority. Jews made up a tiny minority numbering no more than a thousand in the Algarve. Arabic became the main language spoken in al-Andalus and Islam the main religion. Over 1,000 words of Arabic origin survive in modern Portuguese and many place names such as the Alfama district of Lisbon and Alcácer do Sal derive from Arabic.

Agricultural production increased in Islamic Portugal with the introduction of such crops as rice and sorghum as well as apricots, peaches, lettuce and peaches. The cultivation of olives increased and that of grapes was maintained, for fresh fruit.Irrigation techniques improved as did the technology for digging wells and pumping water.

We will be narrowing the beautiful historical stories of this Kingdom while we bring visits to the Alcazar “ Royal Palace ruins of the Emir Palace ” of Tavira, Visit to the Old Historical and main central Mosque of Tavira ( converted to a church during the inquisition , Pego do Inferno a small lagoon with a green-Mediterranean water : legend has it that Pego do Inferno is connected to the Gilão River and the River Guadiana with tunnels. A beautiful visit to this Lost Islamic Kingdom rich of Islamic History and Muslim roots..- Free Afternoon for Shopping & Leisure Overnight and Diner in Benacazon.



Meals : Exclusive Halal Half-board arrangements.

Sightseeing :After breakfast we will start our amazing discovery tour to ” Ronda ” the mountain city.. – The Historical Last Islamic Bastion in Islamic Spain “ The Last resistance of the Muslims in Al Andalus against the Christian King Alfonso “-After the disintegration of the caliphate of Córdoba, Ronda became the capital of a small kingdom ruled by the Berber Banu Ifran, the taifa of Ronda. During this period Ronda received most of its Islamic architectural heritage. In 1065 Ronda was conquered by the taifa of Seville led by Abbad II al-Mu’tadid. Both the poet Salih ben Sharif al-Rundi (1204–1285) and the Sufi scholar Ibn Abbad al-Rundi (1333–1390) were born in Ronda.The Islamic domination of Ronda ended in 1485, when it was conquered by the Marquis of Cádiz after a brief siege. Subsequently, most of the city’s old edifices were renewed or adapted to Christian roles.

The Spanish Inquisitions affected the Muslims living in Spain greatly. Shortly after 1492, when the last outpost of Muslim presence in the Iberian Peninsula, Granada, was conquered, the Spanish decreed that all Muslims and Jews must either vacate the peninsula without their belongings or convert to Christianity. Many people overtly converted to keep their possessions, while secretly practising their religion. Muslims who converted only overtly were called Moriscos. Moriscos were required to wear upon their caps and turbans a blue crescent, which brought upon them taunts and violence of a fanatical population. Traveling without a permit meant a death sentence. This systematic suppression forced the Muslims to seek refuge in mountainous regions of southern Andalusia; Ronda was one such refuge.

On May 25, 1566 Philip II decreed the use of the Arabic language (written or spoken) illegal, doors to homes to remain open on Fridays to verify that no Muslim Friday prayers were conducted, and heavy taxation on Moriscos trades. This led to several rebellions, one of them in Ronda under the leadership of Al-Fihrey. After a bloody and vicious battle, the Spanish forces advanced, while the Moriscos forces retreated. While the Spanish forces were busy with collecting loot left behind from the retreating army, the Moriscos army launched a surprise counterattack. This forced the Spanish forces to flee, except for Alfonso a few soldiers he was able to gather around him. Alfonso, badly wounded, was able to escape with two-hundred of his soldiers to an area shielded with two large rocky areas. Al-Fihrey and his men followed Alfonso until they found him.

At this point both leaders prepared for a head-to-head combat. Their almost insane stubbornness, strength, and will-power is shown by their war of words. As Al-Fihrey approached, Alfonso shouted to him: “If you thought that you found an easy prey, know that I am Don Alfonso de Aguilar.” Al-Fihrey answered him: “If you are Don Alfonso, know that I am Al-Fihrey.” A few minutes later Al-Fihrey struck down Alfonso. Al-Fihrey’s soldiers continued to hunt down Alfonso’s soldiers until the next morning. Every Spanish soldier found was killed and no prisoners were taken. After a ferocious battle, Al-Fihrey’s insurgent army was able to defeat the Spanish army sent to suppress them under the leadership of Alfonso de Aguilar. So violent was the retribution that no Spanish soldier captured was spared his life, including Alfonso himself. This prompted Phillip II to order the massacre of all Moriscos in Ronda.

Those few who survived were sold into slavery. This systematic method of ethnic cleansing continued until 1609. It is estimated that this exodus led to the expulsion of half million people. From 1492 to 1609, it is estimated that three million people have been expelled from Andalucia and an unknown number of people have been killed in Inquisitions and battles of 1499 and Rebellion of Alpujarras of 1568. As for the rebellion`s leader, Muhammad ibn Abouh, he was caught and his head was left hanging on one of Granada`s doors for 30 years. Ronda continued to decline economically and politically until the 19th century. In the 19th century, the New Bridge was built which connected the old city of Ronda and the new Christian city, which were previously separated by a large valley. A new bullring was also built.

Today, Ronda is a popular tourist site. Some of the older Muslim sites still stand, including the Arab Public baths, Palace of the Arabian King, Arab Walls and City Gates, and St. Sebastian’s Minaret. This last site, St. Sebastian`s Minaret, was formerly a small tower belonging to one of the mosques in Ronda and later was used as a bell tower for the church of St. Sebastian, which no longer exists. The foundations of the tower date back to the 14th century. It was declared a historical monument in 1931-  Visits to The Islamic Moorish City wall – The old Moorish Alcantara Bridge. -The Historical Sufi Mountain of “Abdullah Arrundi “ and many more….A beautiful visit to this Last Islamic refugee Mountain rich of Islamic History and Muslim roots..- Free Afternoon for Shopping & Leisure Overnight and Diner in Benacazon.



Meals : Exclusive Halal Half-board arrangements.

Sightseeing After breakfast we will continue to the Capital Caliphate City of Al Andalus  “ Cordoba.”  Cordoba was one of the prominent centers of learning and culture in the enlightened Muslim world.  While the rest of Europe was going through its dark ages, this was the most prosperous and sophisticated metropolis in the continent.  It was the capital of Muslim Spain, spanning the region known today as Spain and Portugal, during 756 to 1031 C.E. and this was its most glorious period. In his essay titled, “The ornament of the world: Medieval Cordoba as a cultural centre,” Robert Hillenbrand writes :

The city was remarkably clean by medieval standards.  Ibn Sa’id, a 7th/13th century historian who knew Cordoba especially well, notes that ‘Spanish Muslims are the cleanest people on the earth in respect of their person, dress, beds and in the interior of their houses.’  The streets were well paved and lighted, the lights being attached to the outer doors and corners of the houses – which, as al-Muqaddasi notes, had tiled roofs.  Cordoba was abundantly supplied with running water, for the supply of which ‘Abd al-Rahman I had constructed an aqueduct.  The city was huge, which in itself is notable…

The grand mosque in the centre of the city was the glory of Cordoba.  This was the most exquisite and largest mosque in the biggest city in Southern Europe.  Abd ar Rahman I and his descendants took two centuries to complete it, starting in 784 C.E.  “At the very least one may conclude from the frequent extensions of the Great Mosque that the population of the city was growing by leaps and bounds through the 3rd/9th and 4th/10thcenturies. … [The great] mosque was famed as a centre for higher learning on a par with Cairo and Baghdad and was the earliest medieval university in Europe,” writes Hillenbrand. In 1236 C.E., immediately after the fall of Cordoba this magnificent Mosque was converted into a Catholic church… Caliphs took keen interest in collecting books and imparting knowledge, which made this city a centre of learning.  Hence, libraries and schools played a significant role in perpetuating the intellectual reputation of Cordoba; women also played a crucial role. As Hillenbrand describes :

” Al Hakam II himself a respected historian, invited professors from the eastern Islamic world to teach at the Great Mosque and provided endowments for their salaries.  He also built twenty seven free schools and had in the Alcazar a library of 400,000 volumes whose catalogue itself ran to 44 registers of 50 leaves apiece … the library (somewhat like the Great Mosque) was constantly outgrowing its accommodation, so that its premises had to be moved no less than five time… To put such stories in context, it is well to remember that the contemporary monastery of St. Gall in Switzerland had one of Northern Europe’s manor libraries with perhaps 600 books… At least an equally significant factor in the spread of literacy were the Islamic schools which employed scores of female copyists … poet Ibn Hazm wrote: ‘women taught me the Quran, they recited to me much poetry, they trained me in calligraphy…’  Other women who were more highly educated worked as secretaries, as teachers and as librarians; yet others practiced medicine and law … Some, like the princesses Wallada bint al-Mustakfi and Aisha, were famous for their poetry… ”

The knowledge of medicine, mathematics, astronomy and botany was regularly updated by the constant contact with Baghdad and the east. As a result, Cordoba was far more advanced in anything than the rest of Europe.  Scholars and scientists made new discoveries in mathematics, astronomy, medicine, surgery, geography, and so on.

It was this mathematical know-how and advancement of Muslim architecture that permitted the building of the great Gothic cathedrals of the Middle Ages.  Margarita Lopez Gomes chronicles in her essay, “The Mozarabs: Worthy bearers of Islamic culture”:

The great historian of Spanish art, Manuel Gomez Moreno, has bequeathed us many works on Mozarab art and Islamic cultural influence… Mozarab travelers began building churches and monasteries in the 3rd/9th and 4th/10th centuries…these churches exhibit a further development of artistic elements brought from al-Andalus: the horseshoe arch, elongated and joined together with voussoirs; windows with geometric lattice-work or in paired horseshoe arches the panel (alfiz) around the arches flat doors cupolas with egg and leaf ornaments and arris reminiscent of the Mosque of cordoba…

Since this city was far more advanced in medicine, people from all over Europe came to Cordoba in search of cures. A time when most other Europeans would take their sick to the graves of dead saints, Muslim physicians discovered that disease was transmitted through tiny airborne organisms.  This discovery led to the study of germs, and hospitals were constructed to quarantine and treat the sick.  These hospitals had separate wards for patients suffering from different kinds of diseases; even mental illness was treated while the same illness in Europe would lead to death by burning alive. Muslim Cordoba was indeed a highly civilized, multicultural society and a city of light.

We will bring visits to the great Medina Azahara Museum and Great Mosque of Cordoba – Visit to the bridge of ” Musa Ibn Nusair ”  – Visit to the old Historical City “Al Juderia” Islamic quarter – Free Traditional Shopping, later in the evening we will continue our journey to the last Kingdom of Islamic Spain .. The Nazari Islamic Kingdom…. “ Gharnaata “ Granada –  Dinner and Overnight in Granada. ( Loja )



Meals :Exclusive Halal Half-board arrangements.

Sightseeing :After our breakfast we will start our discovery tour of the Last Islamic Kingdom City of  Andalucia ” Granada ” …. During the Reconquista, Muslim states fell one by one to Christian kingdoms invading from the north. The major cities of Cordoba, Seville, and Toledo fell between the 11th and 13th centuries. The Murabitun and Muwahhidun (Almoravid and Almohad) movements from North Africa helped slow the Christian tide, but disunity among the Muslims eventually led to continued loss of land.  One Muslim state – Granada – was able to escape conquest by Christians in the early 13th century . After the fall of Cordoba in 1236, the rulers of the Emirate of Granada signed a special agreement with the Kingdom of Castile, one of the most powerful Christian kingdoms. Granada had agreed to become a tributary state to Castile. This meant they were allowed to remain independent as the Emirate of Granada, but in exchange for not being invaded by Castile, they had to pay a yearly sum (usually in gold) to the Castilian monarchy. This created a detrimental situation for the Muslims of Granada as they paid regularly to strengthen their enemies. Despite this, one of the reasons Granada was able to maintain its independence was its geography. It lies high in the Sierra Nevada Mountains of Southern Spain. The mountains created a natural barrier for any invading armies. Thus, despite being militarily weaker than Castile, the mountainous terrain provided a huge defensive advantage.

For over 250 years, Granada remained as a tributary state to the stronger Kingdom of Castile. But surrounded by unfriendly Christian nations, Granada was constantly at risk of being exterminated. In the early 1400s, a Muslim scholar wrote of al-Andalus’ last kingdom, “Is Granada not enclosed between a violent sea and an enemy terrible in arms, both of which press on its people day and night?” The impetus for the conquest of Granada occurred in 1469, when King Ferdinand of Aragon and Queen Isabella of Castile married. This united the two most powerful Christian kingdoms of the Iberian Peninsula. With a united front, now the Christians set their sights on removing the last Muslim state from the peninsula.

In 1482, war began between the new Kingdom of Spain and the Emirate of Granada. Despite being in a much weaker position, the Granadans fought valiantly. One Spanish chronicler expressed his respect for the Muslim soldiers, “the Moors [Muslims] put all their strength and all their heart into the combat, as a courageous man is bound to do when defending his life, his wife, and his children.” The ordinary Muslim civilians and soldiers were fighting for their existence and the survival of Islam in al-Andalus, and fought very bravely. The Muslim rulers, on the other hand, were not as chivalrous or brave.Throughout the war, the Christians remained unified and did not break up into separate warring factions, as they had commonly done in the past. As a result, Granada experienced huge political upheaval. Muslim leaders and governors were commonly at odds and scheming different plans to undermine each other. Many of them were even secretly working with the Christian kingdoms in exchange for wealth, land, and power.

Worse than all of that, in 1483, one year into the war, the sultan’s son, Muhammad, rebelled against his father and sparked a civil war in Granada, just as Spanish forces began to attack from outside. King Ferdinand planned to use the civil war to his advantage. He supported Muhammad in his fight against his father (and later, his uncle) in an effort to weaken Granada as a whole. Muhammad was supported with arms and soldiers by Ferdinand in the fight against other members of his family, and thus was able to take power over Granada.  Throughout this armed struggle, Christian armies slowly pressed further into Grenadian lands, so that by the time Muhammad took power in 1490, he only ruled the city of Granada and nothing of the surrounding countryside.

Right after solidifying his rule over Granada, however, Muhammad was sent a letter by King Ferdinand that demanded he immediately surrender the city. Muhammad was very surprised by this demand as Ferdinand had given him the impression that he would be allowed to rule over Granada with Ferdinand’s support. Clearly, Muhammad realized too late that he had been just a pawn used by Ferdinand to weaken Granada.

Muhammad decided to resist the Christians militarily and sought help from other Muslim kingdoms throughout North Africa and the Middle East. No help came besides a small Ottoman navy that raided the Spanish coast and did not cause much damage. By the end of 1491, the city of Granada was surrounded by Ferdinand and Isabella’s army. From the towers of his palace, Alhambra, Muhammad could see the huge Christian armies assembling and preparing to conquer the city. With this depressing future in sight, Muhammad was forced to sign a treaty which gave over control of the city in November 1491.

On January 2nd, 1492, the treaty took effect and the Spanish army entered Granada and officially took possession of the last Muslim state of al-Andalus. Christian soldiers occupied the legendary Alhambra palace that morning. They hung the banners and flags of Spain’s Christian monarchs from the walls, signifying their victory.

At the top of Alhambra’s tallest tower, they erected a giant silver cross, telling the terrified people of Granada below that the forces of Christendom had been victorious over the Muslims of Al-Andalus. Muslims were too fearful to venture outdoors, and the streets were deserted.  Sultan Muhammad was exiled, and on his way out of Granada, he stopped at a mountain pass to look back at Granada and began to cry. His mother was unimpressed with his sudden remorse and scolded him, “Do not cry like a woman for that which you could not defend as a man.”

Although the victorious Christians promised religious freedom and generally favorable terms to the people of Granada, these promises were soon broken. In 1502, Islam was officially outlawed in Granada and hundreds of thousands of Muslims had to either immigrate to North Africa or hide their beliefs. By the early 1600s, not a single Muslim was left in all of Spain.

The story of al-Andalus’ decline from one of the Muslim world’s leading political and social powers in the 11th century to a rump state that was conquered in the late 1400s is one that has no match in Islamic history.

The constant infighting among Muslims, the lack of support from other Muslim empires, and the focus on personal power instead of Islamic unity all led to this downfall. And with the loss of Granada in 1492, that story ended. This article was originally written by Firas AlKhateeb published in Lost Islamic History .- Visit to the Historical Coran Madrassa of Granada. Visit to the surroundings of the historical old Cathedral ( Originally a Mosque converted to a cathedral )  – Visit to the Arabic “Al baicin ” Islamic Arabic quarter Alhambra Palace – Free Traditional Shopping tour in Granada – Visit to the beautiful “Mirador” –  Plaza Saint Nicolas –  The Historical sacramento – Overnight and Diner in Granada ( Loja )



Meals : Breakfast only arrangements.

Sightseeing After breakfast, Transfer to Malaga  International Airport for your return flight.